This SharePoint 2016 tutorial explain, what are web applications in SharePoint? How we can create a web application in SharePoint 2016/2013. We will create a web application from SharePoint 2016 central administration.
If you are new to SharePoint 2016, then you can check out below SharePoint 2016 tutorials before going to create a web application in SharePoint 2016.
- Difference between SharePoint online and SharePoint on-premise
- SharePoint 2016 new features for developers
- Copy SharePoint list items to another list programmatically using CSOM in SharePoint Online/2013/2016
- SharePoint 2019/2016/2013/Online Supported Browser
- SharePoint 2019/2016/2013 Hardware and Software Requirements
SharePoint Web Application
- A SharePoint web application is a collection of one or more IIS websites configured to map incoming HTTP requests to a set of SharePoint sites. A SharePoint 2013 web application is composed of an Internet Information Services (IIS) website that acts as a logical unit for the site collections that you create. The web application also maps each SharePoint site to one or more specific content databases. SharePoint Foundation uses content databases to store site content such as list items, documents, and customization information.
- The default website that is automatically created by IIS listens for incoming HTTP requests on port 80. You can create additional IIS websites to provide additional HTTP entry points using different port numbers, different IP addresses, or different host headers.
- When you create a web application in SharePoint Foundation, it creates an IIS website with a root folder containing a web.config file at the following location:
- A SharePoint on-premises farm typically runs two or more web applications. The first web application is created automatically when the farm is created. This web application is used to run SharePoint 2013 Central Administration. You need at least one additional web application to create sites that are used by business users.
- There are various components of web application like the name of the IIS website, port, host header, location of the IIS files, whether or not to allow anonymous access, whether or not to use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) authentication, the use of a default sign-in page, application pool, failover database server, search server, database name, and service application proxy group.
- When you create a new web application, you also create a new content database and define the authentication method used to connect to the database.
The authentication works at the web application level. SharePoint platform itself does not supply the actual code to authenticate users. Instead, the SharePoint platform relies on external user authentication systems such as Windows Server and Active Directory or the built-in support in ASP.NET for forms-based authentication (FBA). After an external system has authenticated a user and created a security token, the SharePoint platform is then able to create a profile around that security token to establish and track the user’s identity inside the SharePoint security system.
When you create a SharePoint web application, you have the option of creating it in either claims mode or classic mode. Classic authentication mode is the older style of user authentication that was used in SharePoint 2007. Though classic mode is still supported in SharePoint 2013 for older scenarios, its use is deprecated and should be avoided.
The claims-based authentication mode was introduced in SharePoint 2010; it allows the SharePoint platform to use a single, unified format for all the security tokens that are created during the user authentication process. The user authentication tokens are converted into a special format for caching known as a claims token.
The authentication process in a SharePoint web application in a scenario in which the user is authenticated with Windows authentication. The first part of the authentication process involves creating a native Windows security token. In the second part of the authentication process, SharePoint Foundation will convert the Windows security token into a FedAuth token by using a local service known as the Security Token Service (STS).
You also have the option of configuring a web application in an on-premises farm to support forms-based authentication by using an ASP.NET authentication provider. In this style of authentication, SharePoint Foundation once again calls upon the STS to create a FedAuth token for the FBA user during the user authentication process.
Claims-based security makes it possible to configure a SharePoint web application to authenticate users by using external identity providers that support an XML-based industry standard known as Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML). More specifically, SharePoint 2013 supports identity providers that support the SAML 1.1 specification. Examples of supported providers include Windows Azure Access Control Service (ACS), Windows Live ID, Google Single Sign-on, and Facebook.
In the real world, you might have to create different web applications. And the authentication process might be different. For example, you might create a web application for internal employees where the authentication will work as windows authentication because they will have own active directory accounts.
Then you can create a second web application so they could create sites that could be made accessible to external users such as partners and vendors. The key characteristic of these external users is that they will never have their own Active Directory user accounts and, therefore, cannot be authenticated by using Windows authentication. This support user authentication using FBA.
Then we can create a third web application to host any SharePoint site that requires anonymous access, such as their public website.
Create a Web Application from SharePoint 2016 Central Administration
– We can create a web application by using the SharePoint central administration website or we can also create a web application using PowerShell. In a large enterprise, they usually use PowerShell to create a web application.
– The user must be a member of the Farm Administrators SharePoint group to create a web application. To verify open SharePoint 2016 central administration web site. Then click on “Manage the farm administrators group” which is under the Security section.
Now to create a web application, from the SharePoint 2016 Central Administration home page click on “Manage web applications” link which is under “Application Management”.
Then from the Ribbon click on New Web Application to create a new web application.
In the Create New Web Application Dialog box, fill up below things to create a new web application.
IIS Web Site:
- Select the option “Create a new IIS Web site.
- Give a name, by default it will take SharePoint – [Random Port number] like SharePoint – 27214
- Port Number
- Leave it Blank for Host Header
- Path: This is the path of the virtual directory of the web application. By default it will take like below:
- Select No for Allow Anonymous
- Select No for Use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
Claims Authentication Types:
Choose Enable Windows Authentication and Integrated Windows authentication [NTML]
Sign In Page URL:
In the Sign in Page URL, choose Default Sign In Page.
Give a public URL for the web application, by default it will come at http://ServerName:Port
Choose to Create a new application pool.
By default, it will create an application pool same name as your web application.
Provide Security Account for the application pool.
Database Name and Authentication:
Give the Database Server name
And Database Name
Choose Windows Authentication
Service Application Connections:
Select the service applications you want to activate
Customer Experience Improvement Program:
You may like following SharePoint web application tutorials:
- Extending Web Applications in SharePoint 2013
- Delete Hidden Web Application in SharePoint 2013 using PowerShell
- Manage Web Application Settings in SharePoint 2013/2016
- Check Anonymous access for all web applications in SharePoint
- Comparing a Web Application and Site Collection limits in SharePoint 2016 with SharePoint 2013 2010 2007
- New-SPWebApplication ApplicationPoolAccount is not found an error while creating SharePoint 2016 web application using PowerShell
Then click on OK to create the web application. It will take some time to create a web application. Once created successfully, it will display a message. Once the web application is ready we can create our site collection.
I am Bijay from Odisha, India. Currently working in my own venture TSInfo Technologies in Bangalore, India. I am Microsoft Office Servers and Services (SharePoint) MVP (5 times). I works in SharePoint 2016/2013/2010, SharePoint Online Office 365 etc. Check out My MVP Profile.. I also run popular SharePoint web site EnjoySharePoint.com